Appendix 2: Plans for 2016
1. TARDIS II: DEEP-EARTH FLUIDS IN SUBDUCTION ZONES, OPHIOLITES AND CRATONIC ROOTS
• Fieldwork and geochemical studies of Tibetan ophiolites will continue, working toward an overall model for the development of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and its evolution.
• Initiation of a major research project on the evolution of the Tethys belt in Iran, involving field work, studies of ophiolites and chromitites, isotopic mapping of hidden crust, geochemical studies of young magmatic rocks, and integration with deep-seismic traverses being carried out by IGG-CAS (Beijing).
• The Cabo Ortegal project will be continued, turning the focus toward structural aspects.
• Continuation of xenolith work on Asian localities and on Sc in laterites (industry collaboration project)
• Completion of the work on the Pannonian Basin
• Further detailed work on the Israeli volcanic ejecta, including microchemical, isotopic and crystallographic studies of the dozens of unidentified phases (industry collaboration project)
2. MULTI-SCALE FOUR-DIMENSIONAL GENESIS, TRANSFER AND FOCUS OF FLUIDS AND METALS
In 2016, the planned work for the three modules of Fertility, Architecture and Transient Geodynamics will advance as follows:
• More experiments with sulfur at varying fO2, with volatiles such as Cl, CO2, and Br, will be run to establish the role of volatiles in the metal transport capacity of melts
• Master study of Bataa Bataar and postdoctoral appointment of Luis Parra-Avila to build knowledge capacity to develop reliable heavy mineral indicators in the exploration for magmatic-hydrothermal mineral systems
• Honours project of Alison David and ongoing PhD project of Greg Dering to unravel the mechanisms and dynamics of mafic intrusion emplacement relevant to the formation of magmatic sulfide deposits
• Ongoing PhD study of Greg Poole aiming to put forward a new metallogenic model for porphyry-related and epithermal systems of the Permian-Triassic Choiyoi Group in the Cordillera Frontal, Argentina
• Ongoing PhD study of Jason Bennett aiming to develop cassiterite (SnO2) as the zircon (ZrSiO4) 'equivalent' for tin bearing mineralised systems
• Postdoctoral appointment of Erwann Lebrun to generate radiogenic and stable isotope constraints of the genesis of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation in the Johan Petersen Intrusion, Ammassalik Intrusive Complex, Tasiilaq area, SE Greenland
• Postdoctoral appointment of Johannes Hammerli involving the application of the new ARC-funded split stream LA-(MC)-ICP-MS facility at UWA to unlock the potential of detrital minerals in exploration targeting
• PhD study of Eunjoo Choi to unravel the architecture of the Archean lithospheric mantle of the Yilgarn Craton through careful understanding of alkaline magmatism in space and time
• Wrapping up of the PhD studies on the four dimensional lithospheric evolution and controls on mineral system distribution in Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic terranes in North America, West Africa and North Australia
• Master study of Jack Stirling on the geochronology of the Lower Crustal Cumulate Complexes in the Kohistan Terrane, Northern Pakistan.
• Postdoctoral appointment of Chris Gonzalez on " Petrological-thermomechanical modeling of the behaviour of CO2 in the mantle-lithosphere"
• Ongoing CET-CCFS-wide effort to better constrain ore forming processes that occur at craton margins
• Postdoctoral appointment of Weronika Gorczyk to establish magma emplacement in 3D
3. TWO-PHASE REACTIVE FLOW IN MULTI-COMPONENT DEFORMABLE MEDIA
With the maturity of the modelling techniques now demonstrated, 2016 will largely see their progressive application to problems relevant to the aims of this project. This will involve a suite of simulations exploring the dynamics of subduction over Earth's history, and its effect on fluid systems. We will also be further integrating the newly developed advanced methods for multiphase/component flow, with large-scale geodynamic flow models, to explore the effects of realistic fluid release and migration on geodynamic model predictions, and integrating these with seismology constraints.
Seismology components of this project will focus on imaging the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in NE China, where the oceanic subduction in the east has profound impacts on geologic features, such as, the destruction of NE China Craton keels, extensive intraplate volcanism and a systematic variation of topography from west to east.
The experimental laboratory build-up will be continued, with acquisition of additional high-pressure equipment including laser-heated diamond-anvil cells to complete the pressure range relevant for "core to crust" applications from next year.
4. A PLANETARY DRIVER OF ATMOSPHERIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION THROUGH TIME
CCFS Flagship Program 4 will focus on the following projects in 2016:
• Origin of life in terrestrial hotsprings. Following on from discoveries of hotspring deposits in the 3.48 Ga Dresser Formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia, this collaborative research will focus on the availability of elements and complexity in terrestrial hotsprings as a setting for the origin of life.
• Composition of Early Archean hydrosphere and atmosphere, using carbonate mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry to constrain seawater and hydrothermal fluid compositions, from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia.
• The role and geometry of hydrothermal fracture networks in transporting heat and minerals in fluids to the surface and how these interact with ancient life.
• Microbial role in the precipitation of "buckshot" pyrite and gold in the 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation, Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton.
• Adaptation of the biosphere to the rise of atmospheric oxygen, as preserved in a 2.4 Ga stromatolite-thrombolite carbonate reef succession with black cherts, from Western Australia.
• Genesis of orthomagmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralisation on Mars and the role of sulfur in the hydrosphere and implications for the search for life on Mars
• Landing site selection for NASA's Mars 2020 mission.
Our work on ancient life on Earth, and the discoveries of hotspring deposits, is being used in the process of site selection for the upcoming Mars mission to search for signs of life.
• Whole-Earth tectonics. Integration of planetary, atmospheric and biological evolution, to develop a 4-D framework of causative changes through time.
5. DETECTING EARTH'S RHYTHMS: AUSTRALIA'S PROTEROZOIC RECORD IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT
New sampling trips are being planned for Yilgarn dykes, the Gawler Range Volcanics, the Gairdner dyke swarm, and possibly Proterozoic targets in Northern Territory. Palaeomagnetic, geochronological and geochemical investigations on the Yilgarn and Antarctic dykes will continue, and early results will be written up for publication. Samples from the 1.8 Ga Hart Dolerite and Cambrian sandstone of the Kimberly craton, and the Morawa Lavas of the Yilgarn craton, will be analysed in the new paleomagnetic laboratory at Curtin.
A paleomagnetic study of 1.9-1.8 Ga and 1.26 Ga mafic intrusions in southern Siberia will be carried out. New paleomagnetic data from 1.35 Ga mafic dykes in southern Siberia, 1.97 Ga and 1.77 Ga mafic intrusions in Karelia (Russia), will be written up for publication. Systematic interpretation of Ediacaran-Silurian sedimentary settings for the western Yangtze margin will be conducted, and provenance analysis of supplementary Yangtze samples and all Australian samples will be carried out for comparison.
6. FLUID REGIMES AND THE COMPOSITION OF THE EARLY EARTH
The Nd study of the Anshan gneisses in the NCC will be completed in 2016 and the results prepared for publication. Further work on Antarctic zircons will involve the use of NanoSIMS and the Atom Probe at Curtin to further clarify the nature and distribution of the Pb nanospheres and the mobility of other elements affected by the high-grade metamorphism. The newly-identified >3.5 Ga rocks in the northern Tarim Craton will be resampled in March 2016 and zircons analysed on the Curtin SHRIMP later in the year. Dr Ge of Nanjing University will join Curtin staff in mid-2016 and commence a re-investigation of the ancient zircons from the Jack Hills site. This will involve getting back to basics and utilising a strict set of criteria in order to identify the most pristine Hadean grains. This will result in identifying the basic geochemical and isotopic parameters that define the World's oldest fragments, which are currently 'hidden' by a wealth of data that were not necessarily collected in the most rigorous and appropriate manner.
Work on modelling the early Earth, flagged in 2015, will commence with CI O'Neill and Prof Calo at Curtin. Work on extra-terrestrial samples will continue in association with the Swedish Museum in Stockholm. This will include both Martian meteorites and Apollo 14 Lunar samples.
7. 3D ARCHITECTURE AND PRECAMBRIAN CRUSTAL EVOLUTION IN THE WESTERN YILGARN, AUSTRALIA
Klaus Gessner and Ruth Murdie will focus on regional 3D modelling studies, potential field interpretations accompanying the seismic interpretation of the Eucla-Gawler seismic survey, and on field support for projects in Murchison Domain, Capricorn Orogen and Albany-Fraser Orogen.
3D models and accompanying GSWA Records are planned for the Albany-Fraser Orogen, and work will continue on a 3D fault network model for the northwest and
central Yilgarn Craton. Huaiyu Yuan will investigate crustal structure of the Capricorn Orogen and the architecture of the lithospheric mantle in
increasing detail. A suite of passive source methods will be applied in conjunction with the COPA to develop a technical template for resolving seismic
anisotropy structure for
Whole of centre technology development
1. CAMECA ION MICROPROBE DEVELOPMENT: MAXIMISING QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY OF CCFS ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UWA ION PROBE FACILITY
Work will commence or be continued in the following areas:
• Development of analytical protocols for oxygen and carbon isotopes in carbonates.
• Improvement of analytical protocols for S isotopes will be continued, to solve matrix effects in sulfides with complex chemistry.
• Pilot projects will be continued, looking at the development of hydrogen isotope analyses in Lawsonite and isotopic labelling analysis of mineral exchanging with fluids.
• The analysis of isotopes from the new NanoSIMS 50L will be developed.
2. FRONTIERS IN INTEGRATED LASER-SAMPLED TRACE ELEMENT AND ISOTOPIC GEOANALYSIS
Work will commence or be continued in the following areas:
• Development of standard operating procedures for in situ U-Pb isotope measurements on the Nu Plasma II
• Refinement of standard operating procedures for in situ
Re-Os isotope measurements on the Nu Plasma II
• Finalisation of the first phase of an experimental program to investigate fundamental properties of femtosecond ablation processes in geological materials (zircon)
• Continuation of the second phase of investigation of ablation processes of non-silicates - fluorite, sulfides, oxides, phosphates, and carbonates
• Commence development of split-stream laser ablation analysis using Q-ICP-MS (U-Pb isotopes) and MC-ICP-MS (Hf isotopes)
• Development of in situ Mg-isotope measurement of olivine by femtosecond laser ablation
• Development of methods for the measurement of Fe isotopes in chromite and chrome-rich ultramafic rocks;
• Continuation of transfer of in situ methodologies for
trace-element analysis from Q-ICP-MS to Nu Attom
• Continued development of Glitter software, focusing on incorporation of radiogenic isotope systems for Nu Plasma II